How can we search for pages local to a particular country?
For starters, there are country code top-level domains. To find pages that belong to a country-level domain, we can simply use X-Ray:
But there are many other domains, that don't point to a location. When figuring out the region for a page on a generic domain, such as .com or .org, Google uses the pages' IP address (revealing the location). It may use a few other signals, such as location information within the page HTML code and locations of other pages pointing to this one.
Google's Advanced Search has a setting, allowing to search for pages, which Google identified as belonging to a region:
If we set a region in the advanced dialog, we will not see it reflected in the search string. Instead, the setting generates an addition to the search URL that looks like this:
Here is an example search narrowed to a region:
We can exclude country-specific domains and examine what Google brings in as local to a country, based on factors other than the country-specific domain:
An interesting - and practical - use case for using the "region" advanced setting is X-Raying LinkedIn. Take a look:
Now, here is a question: can you reliably X-Ray LinkedIn for US-based profiles only, using the advanced region setting? I will leave the answer to the reader :)